Arthur L. Caplan, Ph.D.
Date Posted: October 1, 2014
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A Standardized Slow Enteral Feeding Protocol and the Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants
Compared with early enteral feeds, the delayed introduction and slow advancement of enteral feedings to reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are not well studied in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. The objective of this study is to study the effects of a standardized slow enteral feeding (SSEF) protocol in ELBW infants.
Babies With Higher Birth Weights Perform Better In School Later On; Mothers Should Be Carrying Them To Full Term
Its well known that a baby with a low birth weight below 5.5 pounds may have health problems. Many of these children are born prematurely, while others have a low weight because of health or substance problems stemming from their mothers. Birth under any of these circumstances can impede a childs development in the womb, causing respiratory and heart problems, among others. Though its effects on cognitive development are debated, theres a general consensus that these babies grow up to have difficulty in school.
World's first child born after uterus transplantation
In a ground-breaking research project at the University of Gothenburg, seven Swedish women have had embryos reintroduced after receiving wombs from living donors. Now the first transplanted woman has delivered a baby -- a healthy and normally developed boy.
Drinking Water Contaminant Linked to Pregnancy Complications in Study
A common drinking water contaminant increases the risk of some types of pregnancy complications, a new study suggests. "Our results suggest that prenatal PCE exposure is not associated with all obstetric complications, but may increase the risk of certain ones, including stillbirth and placental abruption [when the placenta separates from the wall of the uterus]," the Boston University Medical Center researchers said in a university news release. The team looked at the effects of the chemical tetrachloroethylene (PCE) among pregnant women in Cape Cod, Mass., where water was contaminated with PCE in the late 1960s to early 1980s due to vinyl-lined asbestos cement pipes.
Effects of Hypothermia for Perinatal Asphyxia on Childhood Outcomes
Previous studies have demonstrated that the application of moderate hypothermia (ranging from 33ºC down to 30.4ºC) for 72 hours, if initiated within the first 6 hours of life in asphyxiated infants, can reduce death or disability up to age 2 years. This study seeks to provide longer-term outcomes on a group of infants who were enrolled from 2002 until 2006 in the Total Body Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy trial (TOBY).
AntiTNF-a Therapy May Cause Neonatal Neutropenia
Although antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antibodies are associated with a clear risk of agranulocytosis in adults and are known to cross the placenta, monitoring of the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in neonates born to mothers receiving these biological agents is not currently recommended. Here, we report on the first case series of 4 newborn patients with severe neutropenia born to mothers treated for ulcerative colitis with infliximab during pregnancy (including the third trimester).
Does stage of labor at time of cesarean affect risk of subsequent preterm birth?
The effect of a cesarean in different stages of labor on spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) in a subsequent pregnancy has not been extensively studied. The objective of the study was to evaluate the risk of subsequent sPTB after a first stage cesarean or second stage cesarean compared to a vaginal delivery.
Blood Transfusion and Breast Milk Transmission of Cytomegalovirus in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants
Postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can cause serious morbidity and mortality in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. The primary sources of postnatal CMV infection in this population are breast milk and blood transfusion. The current risks attributable to these vectors, as well as the efficacy of approaches to prevent CMV transmission, are poorly characterized. The objective of this study is to estimate the risk of postnatal CMV transmission for 2 sources: (1) transfusion of CMV-seronegative and leukoreduced blood and (2) maternal breast milk.
Premature Babies' Immune Systems May Not Be As Weak As We Think; Scientists Find Hidden Store Of Antibacterial Molecule
Preemies are already at a higher risk for infection, like most babies. Treating them quickly is the best way to prevent its spread to the bloodstream where it can cause sepsis, a life-threatening complication. The study, from researchers at Kings College London, found that a preemies immune system is stronger than once thought, and that it may just work differently than it would in an adult. If the researchers can find a way to tap into this newly found immune process, they may be able to help preemies fight infections better.